All posts by Jeremy Costin

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How to Use Relays

About: Relays are on and off switches for electronics.

Why are they significant? Higher powered circuits can ruin lower powered components. For example, powering a large motor with an Arduino board will not end well for the Arduino. The relay allows higher powered components to interact with lower powered components without the risk of damage.

Prerequisites: Before following these instructions, you should know about open and closed circuits. You should also be able to understand a basic electrical schematic.

Introduction to the pins:

Input pins:

  • VCC – this pin should be connected to +5v at all times
  • GND – this pin should be connected to ground at all times
  • IN – this pin switches on and off in the relay.

– If it receives 0v, the relay is in its normal state.

– If it receives +5v, it is not in its normal state.

– IN is sometimes called “Digital Pin” or just “D.”

Output pins:

  • COM – this pin will always be used in a circuit; it is the pin that is measured from.

–     NC       – (Normally Closed) this pin closes circuit with COM when relay is in it’s normal state.

  • NO – (Normally Open) this pin forms an open circuit with COM when the relay.


Examples of use:

Let’s say you have a gigantic light bulb (or any electronic component that uses a lot of power) and you need to be able to switch it on and off with an Arduino. The big light bulb needs a big battery to power it, but that amount of power would burn the Arduino to a crisp. The solution is to use a relay.

As you can see, the +5v pin on the Arduino is attached to the VCC pin on the relay and the GND pin on the Arduino is connected to the GND pin on the relay. The IN pin on the relay is connected to the digital pin on the Arduino that will control the circuit.

Because Circuit 2 is connected to the NC pin, the circuit will be closed and the lightbulb will be on when the digital pin on the Arduino is off (the “normal” state). The lightbulb will be off when the digital pin on the Arduino is on. If it was connected to the NO pin, the opposite would happen.

Testing a relay:

To test your relay, use the blink sketch. Attach VCC to +5v, GND to ground, and IN to whichever pin is blinking (13, usually). If you hear the relay clicking on and off every second, you are good to go!


  • If your relay stops working with your program, always go back to the blink sketch. If that sketch works then there must be something wrong with your program.
  • Instead of plugging VCC, GND, and IN pin using male wires, you can put all three of those pins into the three male wires on the arduino board usually located right next to the digital pins. Just make sure everything is lined up correctly.

External help:

Here’s just a list of resources which may help you with relays.

Ordering relays:

Here is the type of relay we used:

If you don’t get that exact type, try to find something similar—nothing too fancy is necessary.

Also you can either get a single relay per unit or dual relay module (same thing except 2 relays are there per unit)

Happy relaying!

By, Jeremy Costin, Nathaniel Rosenbloom and Amber Zedeck

-Class of 2017

MIT App inventor and creator

I learned how to use MIT’s App Inventor this year in order to create an app for my product, On Track. The app inventor software is a free user-friendly interface that allows you to create an Android-accessible app with various functions including user interface, layout, media, drawing and animation, sensor, social and connectivity options (all to be found under the palette list on the left side of the website). For our specific project, we needed a way for users to see how many seats were available on a certain car on a train. app inventor allowed us to create an app that would let the user select the train stations they were departing from and arriving to, the time of the train they are riding on and then based on those selections, determine which car has what number of available seats.

I think the beauty of this interface is it is really easy to pick up, especially with the help of tutorials. I highly recommend watching the tutorials to familiarize yourself with the basic uses for app inventor. The first one I watched, ( was dealing with a Text-To-Speech component. All of the basic tutorials can be found here: At first I found them quite tedious (the people who teach the tutorials are very annoying), and I felt like it was a waste of time to be checking out all of these random mechanisms, but once I got to building my own app, I found that the logic skills and the understanding of what the various components are good for that I learned from these videos to be incredibly vital. So, my biggest recommendation is to play around with a bunch of components, see what works and what doesn’t, and then morph the stuff that you figure out to fit your own personal app and meet your requirements. The app I ended up creating only really used buttons, lists and images (all of these options can be found under the user interface tab under palette), but, if I do say myself, it still looked very professional and met our functionality requirement, which leads me to my next piece of advice: keep it simple. If the logic behind a particular component gets confusing, use the very simple buttons and pictures to replicate what your fully functioning app would look like. In all fairness, our app wasn’t perfectly functional in that it didn’t connect to the train car that we built, but it was a mock app that got the intention of our app across to the VC, and with the simplicity of the mechanisms we used, it seemed to perfectly functional.

I hope this was helpful! Keep coding!


Maddie Burton

Class of 2017